Another common type of sampler during this time was called a Marking sampler. Marking samplers were made up of various styles of alphabets and monograms. They were intended to be references for ‘marking’ linens and clothing with a family’s name or initials. An example of this type of sampler is this marking sampler created in 1738 by Sarah Barnett. Textiles were valuable, and each piece of clothing or bedding had to have the family’s name ‘marked’ or stitched, on it so that when the article was sent out for laundering, it would return to the right home. Sarah has packed her sampler full of different alphabets and has even included a couple of borders and some royal motifs.
Thank you to Museum of Fine Arts in Boston, for the image of this fine sampler.
- A Legacy (woodspiritsisters.wordpress.com)
Samplers were considered valuable; they were often mentioned in wills and passed down through the generations. The first written mention of a sampler is in 1502 in an official court document. Among the household expense accounts of Queen Elizabeth of York, wife of Henry 7th, there is a note that reads: ‘the tenth day of July to Thomas Fisshe in reward for bringing . . . an elne of Iynnyn cloth for a sampler for the Quene’. An ‘elne’ or ell is a measurement based on the elbow and is about 45 inches. It is thought to be the span between two outstretched elbows. At the time, the length of a sampler was determined by the width of the loom used to weave the linen ground, the width of the sampler being determined by the stitcher. This made it easy to roll up the sampler for storage when it was not needed. The linen purchased by the queen was probably used for a ‘band’ sampler, which was made by stitching bands of patterned stitches across the width of the linen, each one stacked on the previous with no regard for an overall design. The bands could be simple or elaborate and often did not extend from edge to edge. Over time the sampler grew as new bands were added. The main purpose of these early samplers was to record stitches and motifs for later reference.
The earliest surviving signed and dated sampler is a combination of a band and spot sampler. This sampler was stitched in 1598, by Jane Bostocke and includes a commemoration of the birth of her cousin, Alice Lee in 1596. You can see the bands of stitching stacked one on top of another on the bottom 2/3 of the sampler, with individual motifs covering the top third. These motifs refer to Jane’s family’s heraldic crest. You can see that there is additional room for Jane to add more motifs. When Jane visited a friend she could copy a motif or band from her friend’s sampler by stitching it out on her own sampler, and then use the image in her work when she returned home. As there were no printed patterns at the time, this was an effective way of spreading design ideas. It is easy to see how this sampler could be used as a reference for other stitching and how Jane used the space available to best advantage. Band and spot samplers continued to be popular until commercial patterns became commonly available.
Thanks to the Victoria & Albert Museum website for the image of this lovely sampler.
Samplers have been around a long time. ‘Sampler’ or ‘exampler’ is from the Latin ‘exemplum’ and the French “essemplaire” meaning: ‘an example, model or pattern to copy’. Early samplers were used as records of pattern and stitch and were valued as a library of sorts by their owners. Over time, samplers began to develop more complexity. They were used as a practical reference, but also passed along skills as a teaching tool. Samplers became testaments to the stitcher’s skills and were believed to build moral character in the young women who stitched them. In modern times, samplers have become treasured as art pieces and as a resource for historians trying to understand the times in which they were created. This multifaceted nature keeps us intrigued to this day
The earliest known sampler was created in Peru. Unsurprisingly it is in pretty bad shape, but considering that it was stitched sometime during the 2nd century, I’d say it looks pretty good!
The Peruvian sampler is a good example of a ‘spot’ sampler, which is a sampler made up of single stitched motifs. Because the stitcher was interested in capturing ideas, rather than in the aesthetics of the finished piece, the motifs were stitched singly with no regard for pattern or composition. It is simply a record of patterns for future use. One thing I love about it is how the motifs reflect the Peruvian culture. There is no mistaking this for an 18th C American schoolgirl sampler! Yet, there are common threads between the two. Each is communicating a message in a unique language but I feel a connection between them. I think that the use of similar materials and methods is a thread that connects us as stitchers, even across the barriers of time and distance. The idea that we can communicate with stitchers from the past is part of the reason that samplers remain a fascinating topic today.